There are many different types of tensile testing machines. They come in different shapes and sizes, from a simple force gauge to a robotic tensile testing machine. This short guide discusses the main types of tensile testing equipment. As well as the best types of universal testing machine.
Universal Testing Machine UTM
Nowadays, most Tensile Testing Machines are Universal Testing Machines. As the name suggests, they are a universal design that can perform many different test types and not just tensile tests!
Typical tests for a Universal Testing Machine UTM:
3 Point bend test
4 Point bend test
Coefficient of friction test
A universal testing machine is otherwise known as a Tensile Tester is generally electromechanical. However, many servo hydraulic materials testing machines are also Universal Testing Machines. Universal Testing Machines use a rigid test frame with a moveable cross head. Additionally, they are moved by an electric motor and gearbox, or by hydraulic ram and a load cell. Modern machines all have comprehensive software to provide analysis of the test results.The Universal Testing Machines can be fitted with many 1000's of different grips, fixtures, extensometers and chamber to accommodate the many different tests they can perform.
Typical sizes / capacities of Universal Testing Machines
Frame capacities are generally from:1 kN to 1000 kN with load cell options down to 2 N, so will work from a load of 0.001N. The frames consist of a single column up to 5 kN and a twin column from 10 kN upwards.The amount of travel or space between the columns can be specified to the needs of the customer. Modern Universal Testing Machines generally have an accuracy of 0.5% of the applied force. As per the requirements of ISO 7500-1. However, some of the larger and older machines could be 1% of the applied load.
Hydraulic tensile testing machine
Hydraulic tensile testing machines are for larger forces typically 400 kN to 6000 kN. Therefore, they are best suited to testing metals and building materials. People often refer to Hydraulic tensile testing machines as servo hydraulic material testing machines. Modern Hydraulic tensile testing machines are of a universal design so can also be called Universal Testing Machines.
Typical tests for a Hydraulic tensile testing machine / Universal Testing Machine:
3 Point bend test
4 Point bend test
Hydraulic tensile testing machines often have two test areas. These allow two types of test on the machine without removing the grips and fixtures. A common set up would be tensile tests in the lower test area with a 3 or 4 point bend in the upper area. This allows for two load cells to be fitted. which will have a more appropriate range for the tests to be performed. The grips and jaws are also hydraulic. This is to ensure very secure gripping of the specimens. The hydraulic power is supplied by a separate hydraulic power unit that is placed next to the materials testing machine. Hydraulic tensile testing machines can be specified for static or cyclic tests. Moreover, hydraulic materials testing machines are generally class 0.5 % of 1% of the applied load according to ISO 7500-1. However older machines maybe 2 or 3%. Click here to see AML’s range of hydraulic tensile testing equipment
Force gauges are the simplest, lowest accuracy and lowest cost type of tensile testing equipment. Additionally, these are normally combined with a test stand. Force gauges are typically for low force tests under 5 kN with most force gauges being under 1 kN. Traditionally force gauges have an integrated load cell. However, there are options to have a separate load cell plugged into the force gauge. Force gauges do not meet the requirements of ISO 7500-1. Therefore, they are not suited for testing to the majority of the ISO, ASTM & BS standards. However, there are many test applications where a Universal Testing Machine would be too costly or simply overkill for the intended test. Furthermore, we often supply force gauges and test stands for in house comparative testing. Or testing of small components or parts. Click here for our full range of Force Gauges & Test Stands.
High temperature tensile testing machine
High temperature tensile testing machines are standard tensile testing machines. Or universal testing machines fitted with a chamber, oven or furnace for tensile testing at high temperatures. As well as high temperature tensile tests, most chambers can also perform tests at low temperatures. Moreover, high temperature tensile testing machine ovens & furnaces can achieve elevated chambers up to 1280℃. However, this depends on the model of oven or furnace specified. Low temperature tensile tests can generally be performed down to -200℃. A typical universal tensile testing chamber will cover the range of -70℃ to 280℃. However, there are custom options or specialist chambers to increase this range. These chambers and ovens are not limited to tensile testing. In fact, just about any test can be performed at low or high temperatures providing the correct type of grips or fixtures are used. Additionally, high temperature tensile testing machine chambers can be fitted to a wide range of material testing machines. From small single column universal testing machines to the largest hydraulic materials testing machines. High temperature tensile testing machine tests are common in most industries. Including, steel making, plastics, packaging, composites, medical devices, nuclear, product design and testing. Have you seen the range of high and low temperature testing chambers and ovens from AML? Click here!Clearly, there are many different types of universal testing machine equipment available. These machines can carry out many tests. Click here to see our guide on the types of tests that tensile, and universal testing machines can perform. Need advice? Contact us and our highly trained technical sales team would love to help!